Urban Community of Dunkerque Grand Littoral
The City of Dunkerque lies in Northern France, near the Belgian border. The Greater Dunkerque area was an important centre for iron and steel production from the 1960s onwards but was affected by a serious recession in the 1980s. To control the effects of its heavy industry on the urban environment, Dunkerque has been running a series of environmental programs since the 1970s, including an air pollution surveillance network (1976), a recycling scheme (1989), and one of the largest wind farms of the time (1996). The city is also running an Industrial Environmental Management Scheme, and created an departement for monitoring industrial pollution, as well as an industrial ecology pilot program.